[101] The airport functioned until 2001, however in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001. However, the earthquake created panic, waking up people who had gone to sleep and those who were awake actually saw the walls shaking. The coldest month is January, with high temperatures in the low 70s F (about 21 °C) and low temperatures in the mid-40s F (about 7 °C). Also of note is the garden adjacent to the Jangpura Metro Station near the Defence Colony Flyover, as are the roundabout and neighbourhood gardens throughout the city. The lakes around the city attract seasonal species. Prime Minister Narendra Modi today said that each and every city of the country, big or small, is going to be the hub of India’s economy, however, Delhi, as … It also is known for its flowering plants, which include a large number of multicoloured seasonals: chrysanthemums, phlox, violas, and verbenas. The Sacred Heart Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral and designed by British architect Henry Medd based on Italian architecture. The head of state of Delhi is the lieutenant governor of the Union Territory of Delhi, appointed by the president of India on the advice of the Central government and the post is largely ceremonial, as the chief minister of the Union Territory of Delhi is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. New Delhi hosts 145 foreign embassies and high commissions. The sissoo (shisham; Dalbergia sissoo) tree, which yields a dark brown and durable timber, is commonly found in the plains. [87], In the year 2019, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs and Government of India introduced the Central Vista redevelopment project proposing the redevelopment of over 440 Hectares,[119] costing ₹20,000 crore (US$2.8 billion)[120], The city hosted the 2010 Commonwealth Games and annually hosts Delhi Half Marathon foot-race. The capital city or the National Capital Territory (NCT) of India is New Delhi. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens, who first visited Delhi in 1912, and Herbert Baker, both leading 20th-century British architects. The five main railway stations are New Delhi railway station, Old Delhi, Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla. Free Wifi. "A British Empire for the twentieth century: the inauguration of New Delhi, 1931,", Ridley, Jane. 26 advertenties van luxe huizen te-koop in National Capital Territory of Delhi: bij LuxuryEstate vind je duizenden advertenties van de beste makelaars in de luxe sector in India. New Delhi is also the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hosting the Rashtrapati Bhavan, Parliament House, and the Supreme Court of India. New Delhi's highest temperature ever recorded is 48.4 °C (119.1 °F) on 26 May 1998 while the lowest temperature ever recorded is −2.2 °C (28.0 °F) on 11 January 1967, both of which are recorded at Indira Gandhi International Airport (formerly known as Palam Airport). [21] A site atop the Raisina Hill, formerly Raisina Village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan, then known as the Viceroy's House. [70], According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the religion of 89.8% of New Delhi's population. Transportation vehicles that are more than 10 years old were banned from entering the capital. In 2012–13, the airport was used by more than 35 million passengers,[98][99] making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. [110], The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon and Noida in the National Capital Region of India. The British declared Calcutta as official capital. Delhi - Delhi - History: The earliest reference to a settlement in the Delhi area is found in the Mahabharata, an epic narrative about two groups of warring cousins, the Pandavas and the Kauravas, both descendants of the prince Bharata. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 116,886 ($2,595).It grew by 16.2% to reach Rs. Indeed, the Delhi Town Planning Committee, set up to plan the new imperial capital, with George Swinton as chairman, and John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted reports for both north and south sites. Birdlife is profuse; year-round species include pigeons, sparrows, kites, parrots, partridges, bush quail, and, on the ridges, peafowl. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi-ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi-ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. India has its capital at New Delhi. [59] Levels of PM2.5 were recorded at 710 μg/m³, more than 11 times the World Health Organization's safe limit. Bara Gumbad mosque in Lodī Gardens, Delhi. Show Prices. Taxis and Auto Rickshaws also ply on New Delhi roads in large numbers. Extensive coverage of Delhi's history begins with the onset of the Delhi Sultanate in the 12th century. Much of Delhi's ancient history finds no record and this may be regarded as a lost period of its history. There were no reports of any damage or injuries to anyone. Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media, and tourism. The animal life of the national capital territory, like its plant life, is quite diverse. Havell. [32] The average annual rainfall is 714 millimetres (28.1 in), most of which is during the monsoons in July and August. The temperature varies from 46 °C (115 °F) in summers to around 0 °C (32 °F) in winters. October and November constitute a transition period from monsoon to winter conditions. Population of Delhi in 2016 According to estimated figures (Census of India) Delhi, the capital of India was home to over 18.6 million people in 2016. The Raj Ghat in the shape of large square platform with black marble was designed by architect Vanu Bhuta. Among the measures, the court ordered to stop registrations of diesel cars and sport utility vehicles with an engine capacity of 2,000 cc and over until 31 March 2016. [109] In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists. Named after Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught (1850–1942), it was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect to the Public Works Department (PWD). According to the Indian constitution, if a law passed by Delhi's legislative assembly is repugnant to any law passed by the Parliament of India, then the law enacted by the parliament will prevail over the law enacted by the assembly.[74]. #3 Best Value of 4,457 places to stay in New Delhi. The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the Tughlaqabad Fort, but this was given up because of the Delhi-Calcutta trunk line that passed through the fort. Adjoining areas such as Barakhamba Road, ITO are also major commercial centres. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses,[101] and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister. The Janpath (Hindi: "Path of the People"), formerly Queen's Way, begins at Connaught Circus and cuts the Rajpath at right angles. In the south, land up to Safdarjung's Tomb was acquired to create what is today known as Lutyens' Bungalow Zone. The primary purpose of the observatory was to compile astronomical tables, and to predict the times and movements of the sun, moon and planets. Gurudwara Bangla Sahib a Sikh gurdwara in New Delhi. The fact that there were any indigenous features in the design were due to the persistence and urging of both the Viceroy Lord Hardinge and historians like E.B. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood, and embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat. [28] A system was introduced under which the elected government was given wide powers, excluding law and order which remained with the Central Government. [102], In 2010, Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA) was conferred the fourth best airport award in the world in the 15–25 million category, and Best Improved Airport in the Asia-Pacific Region by Airports Council International. New Delhi is structured around two central promenades called the Rajpath and the Janpath. [78], The government of National Capital Territory of Delhi does not release any economic figures specifically for New Delhi but publishes an official economic report on the whole of Delhi annually. It is bigger than the Faroe Islands but smaller than Guadeloupe. Earthquake in Delhi today just now: Earthquake tremors were felt in parts of Delhi, capital city of India, on Thursday night. Wild boars are sometimes spotted along the banks of the Yamuna. Construction really began after World War I and was completed by 1931. Calcutta (now Kolkata) was the capital of India during the British Raj, until December 1911. New Delhi hosted the 7th NAM Summit in 1983, 4th BRICS Summit[124] in 2012, IBSA Summit in 2015,[125][126] and 5th Global Conference on CyberSpace in 2017. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was previously meant to be a north–south axis linking the Viceroy's House at one end with Paharganj at the other. National Capital Territory of Delhi Tourism: Tripadvisor has 7,17,584 reviews of National Capital Territory of Delhi Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best National Capital Territory of Delhi Tourism resource. Selecteer van de andere weersverwachting kaarten (op de rechter kant) om de geanimeerde temperatuur, bevolking, wind en neerslag voor deze land op een grootschalige manier te bekijken. Delhi itself is often considered as a hub for international trade. Other urban areas of the metropolis of Delhi are administered by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Alfred North Whitehead, Delhi - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Delhi - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). English is primarily used as the formal language by business and government institutes. New Delhi (/ˈdɛli/ (listen),[5] Hindi: [ˈnəiː ˈdɪlːiː] Naī Dillī) is the capital of India and an administrative district of NCT Delhi. It is associated with a general prevalence of continental air, which moves in from the west or northwest, except during the season of the monsoon, when an easterly to southeasterly influx of oceanic air brings rain and increased humidity. Calcutta had become the centre of the nationalist movements since the late nineteenth century, which led to the Partition of Bengal by then Viceroy of British India, Lord Curzon. [80], New Delhi is a cosmopolitan city due to the multi-ethnic and multi-cultural presence of the vast Indian bureaucracy and political system. Capital is surely a very good attempt at accounting the tale of Delhi as it is and were, but perhaps needed a tighter There's a lot of historical gleaning eventually ending up as rambling. Updates? Pop. [87][116], It took about 20 years to build the city from 1911. [17] The city that was later dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. [10], During the Delhi Durbar on 12 December 1911, George V, then Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, his consort, made the announcement[11][12] that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp. At that time the British government in India decided it wanted to build a new city to serve as its capital which would be adjacent to Delhi and known as New Delhi. The tertiary sector contributes 78.4% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 20.2% and 1.4% contribution respectively. Interestingly, Lord Curzon, who was the Viceroy at the time of division of Bengal, was critical of the move to shift British capital to Delhi. [47][48][49][50] In 2016, United States Environmental Protection Agency listed New Delhi as the most polluted city on Earth[51][52] and IQAir listed New Delhi as the world's most polluted capital city for the second straight year in year 2019. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [100], The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara, was based at Safdarjung Airport which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India. [6] It was designed by British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. This means vehicles have lesser idling time in traffic and vehicle engines would run closer to minimum fuel consumption. All stations have escalators, elevators, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. The national capital territory embraces Old and New Delhi and the surrounding metropolitan region, as well as adjacent rural areas. Free parking. Delhi itself is often considered as a hub for international trade. East of the river is the urban area of Shahdara. Free parking. New Delhi was interested[121] in bidding for the 2019 Asian Games but was turned down by the government on 2 August 2010 amid allegations of corruption in 2010 Commonwealth Games.[122]. Between the river and the hills lie broad alluvial plains; the elevation of the territory ranges from about 700 to 1,000 feet (200 to 300 metres). It has an estimated net State Domestic Product (FY 2010) of ₹1,595 billion (US$22 billion) in nominal terms and ~₹6,800 billion (US$95 billion) in PPP terms. After India gained independence in 1947, limited autonomy was conferred to New Delhi and was administered by a Chief Commissioner appointed by the Government of India. Several other lines are under construction and expected to be commissioned in 2017 adding another 150 km length. 53,976 ($1,200). Among carnivorous animals are leopards, hyenas, foxes, wolves, and jackals, which inhabit the ravine lands and hilly ridges. National Capital Territory of Delhi Tourism: Tripadvisor has 712,640 reviews of National Capital Territory of Delhi Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best National Capital Territory of Delhi … New Delhi has one of the highest road density in India and average vehicle speed is around 15–20 km/h (9.3–12.4 mph) in peak hours in the city.[106]. The national capital of India, New Delhi is jointly administered by both the Central Government of India and the local Government of Delhi, it is also the capital of the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. The last stumbling block was the Agra-Delhi railway line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial (India Gate) and Kingsway (Rajpath), which was a problem because the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city at that time. UNHCR Representation in India is also located in the city. The Old Delhi was founded in 1639 while the New Delhi was established on December 15, 1911. New Delhi is home to Indira Gandhi Memorial Museum, National Gallery of Modern Art, National Museum of Natural History, National Rail Museum, National Handicrafts and Handlooms Museum, National Philatelic Museum, Nehru Planetarium, Shankar's International Dolls Museum. [118] Many elements of New Delhi architecture borrow from indigenous sources; however, they fit into a British Classical/Palladian tradition. [69] New Delhi has a literacy rate of 89.38% according to 2011 census, which is the highest in Delhi. Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of the city of Delhi. [33], In Mercer's 2015 annual quality-of-living survey, New Delhi ranks at number 154 out of 230 cities due to bad air quality and pollution. Laxminarayan Temple (Birla Mandir) a Hindu temple in New Delhi. Later it was to form a permanent National Museum. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The actual enforcement of the legislation came in 1993. [50] The driving restriction scheme was planned to be implemented as a trial from 1 January 2016 for an initial period of 15 days. The names by which the city has been known—including Delhi, Dehli, Dilli, and Dhilli, among others—likely are corruptions of his name. [79], The gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Delhi at prices for the year 2011–12 has been estimated at Rs 3.13 trillion (short scale), which is an increase of 18.7 percent over the previous fiscal. As of 2015[update], the government structure of the New Delhi Municipal Council includes a chairperson, three members of New Delhi's Legislative Assembly, two members nominated by the Chief Minister of the NCT of Delhi and five members nominated by the central government. [129], This article is about the New Delhi district, capital of India, within the union territory of, Location in Delhi (the area demarcated by the purple boundary), India. [67], As of 2011, New Delhi city (the area under NDMC) has a population of 257,803 while New Delhi district has a population of 142,004. But there may be a confusion because New Delhi / Delhi is a union territory. Most of the government offices of the new capital moved here from the 'Old secretariat' in Old Delhi (the building now houses the Delhi Legislative Assembly), a decade before the new capital was inaugurated in 1931. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom. One of the country’s largest urban agglomerations, Delhi sits astride (but primarily on the west bank of) the Yamuna River, a tributary of the Ganges (Ganga) River, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Himalayas. Delhi is een industriestad, verkeersknooppunt, een cultureel centrum met universiteiten, theaters, musea, galerieën en historische bouwwerken uit de Mogoltijd. [30] Since the city is located on the Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little difference in elevation across the city. Delhi, city and national capital territory, north-central India. GSDP in Delhi at the prices for 2012–13 is estimated at Rs 3.88 trillion (short scale) against Rs 3.11 trillion (short scale) in 2011–12.[76]. [18] Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations.[19][20]. "Delhi is the capital of a major global, financial, and strategic power that has a population of over 130 crores and this glory must reflect. The Rajpath which was built similar to the Champs-Élysées in Paris is the ceremonial boulevard for the Republic of India located in New Delhi. Old Delhi, (2001) 12,260,000; national capital territory, (2001) 13,850,507; Old Delhi, (2011) 11,007,835; national capital territory, (2011) 16,753,235. [84] Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. [8], Old Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India and the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. 135,814 ($3,018) in 2009–10 fiscal. The Delhi Durbar of 1911, with King-Emperor George V and Queen-Empress Mary seated upon the dais. Popular lore holds that the city changed its locality a total of seven times between 3000 bce and the 17th century ce, although some authorities, who take smaller towns and strongholds into account, claim it changed its site as many as 15 times. According to legend, the city was named for Raja Dhilu, a king who reigned in the region in the 1st century bce. The first major extension of New Delhi outside of Lutyens' Delhi came in the 1950s when the Central Public Works Department (CPWD) developed a large area of land southwest of Lutyens' Delhi to create the diplomatic enclave of Chanakyapuri, where land was allotted for embassies, chanceries, high commissions and residences of ambassadors, around a wide central vista, Shanti Path. Major sporting venues in New Delhi include the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Ambedkar Stadium, Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Arun Jaitley Stadium, R.K. Khanna Tennis Complex, Dhyan Chand National Stadium and Siri Fort Sports Complex. [9] The Government of British India felt that it would be logistically easier to administer India from Delhi, which is in the centre of northern India. New Delhi: All India War Memorial arch Taking parallel from USA, the United States carved out Washington DC, from the neighboring state and made the capital. On 15 August 1949, the National Museum was formally inaugurated and has 200,000 works of art, both of Indian and foreign origin, covering over 5,000 years.[86]. I believe that we all will continue to work together and make the lives of the people of Delhi better and the city advanced,” said PM Modi during the inauguration event of India’s first-ever driverless train on Delhi Metro’s Magenta Line. Much of New Delhi, planned by the leading 20th-century British architect Edwin Lutyens, was laid out to be the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial ambitions. Delhi is of great historical significance as an important commercial, transport, and cultural hub, as well as the political centre of India. Capital City – Delhi : (Short Essay) New Delhi is city of many histories. The city of Delhi actually consists of two components: Old Delhi, in the north, the historic city; and New Delhi, in the south, since 1947 the capital of India, built in the first part of the 20th century as the capital of British India. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire NCT along with adjoining districts in neighbouring states which includes but is not limited to Ghaziabad, Noida, and Faridabad. To the east the territory is bounded by the state of Uttar Pradesh, and to the north, west, and south it is bounded by the state of Haryana. Numerous ruins scattered throughout the territory offer a constant reminder of the area’s history. New Delhi's per capita GDP (at PPP) was at $6,860 during 2009–10 fiscal, making it one of the richest cities in India. Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on New Delhi roads. He famously resigned[113] from DMRC, taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse[114] which took five lives. New Delhi is governed through a municipal government, known as the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC). United Nations Conference on Trade and Development hosted its second meeting conference in the year 1968 at New Delhi. But in 1911 Delhi was again made the capital of India. As such it must have its own functional capital. Subsequently, housing for them has developed around Gole Market area in the 1920s. To assuage the feelings of the nationalists, the British government decided to shift its capital from Calcutta to Delhi in the year 1911. Delhi Transco Limited, a successor company of erstwhile Delhi Vidyut Board, came into existence on 1st July 2002, as a State Power Transmission Utility of the National Capital. Show Prices. Delhi, India, designated a World Heritage site. The Rajpath, or King's Way, stretches from the Rashtrapati Bhavan to the India Gate. 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